Film: 3302

Science | 1960 | Sound | B/W


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The story of Appleton and the Ionosphere - Historical re-enactment.
Shot from mountains of sea and mist. Shot of Signal Hill, Newfoundland, set in 1901. Shot of kite flying. Shot of ground from kite's point of view. Shot of window from which trails a wire, attached to kite.
Actor as Marconi stands behind table on which stands electrical equipment. He looks out the window. An assistant stands before the window. Marconi sits at table listening on a headphones. A shot of assistant loading fuel into burner. Back to Marconi who has just made a discovery. Marconi's assistant looks surprised. Back to Marconi listening to headset. Marconi passes headset to assistant. They can hear the morse letter S. Marconi and assistant talk to one another, excitedly. Marconi looks at watch, signifying time 12.30 12.12.1901. - wireless waves crossed the Atlantic. A map of the globe is displayed showing the Atlantic. A still of an illustration of German physicist hertz with a wireless machine. Shots of Hertz's transmitter and receiver from different angles. Shots of machinery in action from different angles showing spark gaps in receiver and transmitter. Some shots are close-ups. Machinery shown emanating super-imposed waves to show action of sound waves. A shot of reflectors (to beam wireless waves). Machinery invented by Sir Oliver Lodge (Replaces spark gap). Shot of machinery in action with superimposed sound 'beam' travelling between receiver and transmitter reflectors causes bell to ring. Reflectors are moved apart and bell stops ringing.
A metal sheet is lowered from ceiling which causes bell to ring (reflects). Close up of illustration of Hertz examining experiment.

Illustration of Marconi in front of his machinery. Close up of a telegraphing mechanism. Reconstruction of Marconi's experiment in his father's garden. Shot of London - Tower bridge in foreground. St Paul's Cathedral in background. Shot of map of South of England. Close up of Bristol and Salisbury on the map showing where Marconi developed his experiments.
Close up of London and South east on map. Shot of South of England to show experiments in beaming sound from Isle of Wight to Caen in France. Shot of top of globe showing how radio waves are beamed in a straight line. Shot of a transmitting station at Cornwall.
Shot of Newfoundland. Quite barren with a tower on a hill. Back to historical re-enactment scene of Marconi and assistant. Shot of top of globe with a question mark superimposed. A map of the world is shown, showing extent of wireless telegraphy by 1924. Close up shots of radio values. Shot of Marconi's improvised aerial. Shot of large wireless transmitters.
Map of Europe showing location of broadcasting stations. Shot of top of globe. Still of title page of a book by Heaviside on Electromagnetic Theory (volume 3) . Pages in book turn, showing contents page and others. Illustration of diagram showing bombardment of earth by atoms from the sun. Diagram of an atom. Two negative electrons circle around the nucleus. Ultraviolet radiation hits the electron, tearing it from its orbit. Causes electron to have a positive charge. It becomes an ion.
Back to the diagram of Earth being bombarded by atoms from the sun. Shows ions in atmosphere, forming a layer conducting electricity. Shot of the sky. Diagram of the top of the globe demonstrating how waves are deflected from atmosphere. Back to shot of Heaviside's book. Shot of Edward Appleton, sitting at his desk writing and smoking. A hand writes in chalk, demonstrating transmission of waves. Close up of drawing of ionosphere with sound waves being drawn on it. A close up of a Weston Milliometer is shown, demonstrating various strengths of signals. Shot of a calendar showing the date 6 December 1924. A clock shows time is midnight. Shot of a radio. A handset is removed from its stand. Appleton lifts handset to his had and speaks into it. Shot of Weston Milliometer showing signal being transmitted. Telephone handset is replaced. Close up on milliometer. Shot of sky. Shot of house set at bottom of the screen, emanating a super-imposed pulse to show pulse technique.
Close up of a cathode ray tube, showing how radio operates. Shot of a man operating an ionosphone (?). Back to cathode ray showing echo from ionosphere.
Top of globe shown with two reflecting layers. These are then labelled "Heaviside" layer for lower layer and "Appleton Layer" for higher layer. Waves shown reflecting from layers. Close up of the layers.
Rotating globe shown surrounded by a circle depicting reflecting layers. Shot of sun shooting out flaming matter. Diagram of sun emitting ultraviolet radiation. Still of map of "Ionospheric Observatories. April 1954"
Shot of radio research station at Slough. Shot of Ionosphone and cathode ray display. Shot of photographic records. Shot of woman examining records. Shot of man working at desk. Shots of: diagrams of Ionospheric weather; pylons or transmitters; man explaining to pilot about ionospheric weather; rocket being launched; the moon; radar with super-imposed pulse being beamed to the moon; stars and meteors; shooting stars.
A man stands in front of bank of equipment. Close ups of: radar screens; chart of meteor activity; Sir Edward Appleton at desk. Shots of observatory opening and telescope emerging; stars. Map of globe shown.
Shots of: large radio telescope at Jodrell Bank; radio telescope at Cambridge. Diagram of how this operates.
Shots of: men examining electrical equipment; stars taken by radio telescope; diagram showing star signals; machine broadcasting 'cosmic noise'; stars; radio telescope in action; stars.

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