Film: 5575

History | 1960 | Sound | Colour + B/W


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Poland 1960's

Walking people and people in horses and carts head through a park or rural road. Crowds in cathedral. Shot of interior of cathedral including architectural details. Man plays jazz on saxophone. Younger people smoke and talk in a bar. Shot of jazz magazines. Few shots of a concentration camp and wartime devastation to roads. Still material of dead concentration camp victims. Black and white archive material of October 1956 treaty between Soviet and Polish leaders ( Khrushchev and Gromylka ). See the two leaders and their aides around a conference table. Black and white newsreel footage of Nazi invasion of Poland ( September 1939 ) - strikers peeling for formation, people running in streets, dive bombers, aerial views of bombs falling, exploding apartment blocks, planes fly over city buildings. Bombs falling, buildings being hit, burning buildings, Nazi tanks on streets - German artillery units firing shells. German soldiers removing Polish herald or eagle from a building and throwing it to street. Adolf Hitler walks streets to saluting crowds. Shots of devastation - carts by a river, street filled with dead bodies of troops and civilians. Map with arrows showing the blitzkrieg. Shots of Soviet Red Army meeting with Nazis at Brestkitovsk. Polish prisoners of war ( POW's) march. Standing POW's. Artillery firing at night. Russian fighter planes dropping bombs. Battlefield footage. Tanks and aeroplane bombers. Soviet approach to east of Warsaw. Tanks in suburbs of Warsaw - buildings exploding. Burning tanks. Soviet comrades discussing. The East of Warsaw and smoke. Aerial shot of smoke from a town. A blown-up bridge and crashed train - bombed by AK - Polish Home Army. Armoured vehicles drive through the village. A bridge is blown up. Aerial shot of burning Warsaw ( August 1944 ). People in streets of devastated Warsaw. Rooftop panorama of burning Warsaw. In reaction to Warsaw uprising as Soviet stay east, homes and buildings being torched with German flame-throwers. Devastated buildings in the snow. Grieving crowds, mostly of women crying hysterically , and the dead. Maps of May 1945 with arrows ( Victory in Europe ). Cheering crowds. Allied soldiers marching, soldiers kissing women and being given flowers. Flag-waving crowds, flower-waving soldiers on a train.
Shots of President Truman, Churchill and Stalin together - Potsdam conference. Leaders in posed shots outside and around conference table. Map showing the remapping of Polish borders.
Red Square, Moscow. Soviet soldiers parade. Stalin watches. Wide shot of May Day parade in Red Square, Moscow. Tanks, officers. Winston Churchill watches . Map showing the " Iron Curtain " division of Europe with a red hammer and sickle . Shot of Stalin . Stalin and Truman (?) and heated debate at a congress ( United Nations (?). Start of Cold war . Long tracking shot of people clearing rubble in immediate post-war Warsaw . Men on scaffolding finishing walls of house . People in carts on streets of a city and colour shot of rebuilt old town square of Warsaw ( Starz Miasto ). ' Stalin Dead ' and Soviet communist party leader now : Khruschev . Khrushchev at a station with men . Khrushchev giving a speech denouncing Stalin's cult of personality . Shots of Stalin - alone , observing a treaty (?) being signed , Stalin clapping . The Moscow State Opera House - very grand , packed house , lots of audience shots - state opera .
Colour 1960 : Poznan - a boy pushes a pram , mothers sit on benches . People shopping . 1950/60's Polish cars.
People leave and enter through imposing door . Shot of locomotive works named after Stalin . Imposing building ( Government or local council building ) . Had been the site of a wages protest from the train works which threatened to become a riot , or even a revolution . B/W shot of a rifle . Rioters in dock at court hearing (archive ) . Only twelve were brought to trial . Guarded in court by uniformed soldiers . Judge reads verdict - not heard but narrator tells us they were acquitted .
Steam train pulls into platform (archive b/w) . Crowd on platform wave and cheer ( mostly women in headscarves ). Gromylka on train , he receives bunches of flowers through the window . Crowds everywhere including on the roof of the train , hanging from lamp posts and on the roof of nearby buildings . Leader speaks into a microphone . Declares Polish Independence - not heard . Red Theatre curtain rises . On stage is a café scene - boy meets girl (?) . Audience shots . Costume drama on stage . Painting of a female face . Large abstract paintings hanging in a gallery . Man in suit examines art . Home made poster for a youth club . Polish youngsters look at it . Poster for a " jam session " on same notice board . Wrought iron gates marked " Uniwersytet " ( University ). Grey-haired man gives a lecture in front of a blackboard . Student , male and female , take notes . Wrought iron café sign in the shape of a crocodile . Inside , smartly dressed people occupy tables and drink coffee. Young woman selling antiques to father and son . ( Important as it is her own privately-owned business ) . Close up on the medal she is displaying . Peasant type farmer ploughs field with a horse-drawn plough . Wife and children carry buckets in the background and pick potatoes . Aerial shot of main square in Warsaw . Market stalls selling vegetables and flowers . People make purchases .
Archive of people dancing a waltz . One of the couples is Gromylka and a young girl in traditional dress . Movie and still cameras can be seen in the background . Girl looks very self-conscious. Cut to large metal Star of David falling from the roof of a building . A heap of books being burned . Flags being burned . Scenes in Budapest during the Hungarian uprising . Armed men frogmarch captives through streets . Crowds of people riding on tanks down roads . Barricades erected across streets ( makeshift heaps of brick and stone ). Suited men help a man who has been shot . Tank firing . Gunmen open fire from doorways . Injured people stretchered away . Bombed buildings . Broken tanks . Families escaping through overgrown fields . Father cries as he leads his young family along a snowy path . Refugees crossing border .
Huge crowd assembled to hear Gromylka speak about Hungary . (colour) Cut to man in factory stoking a furnace . Steelworks . Large ugly industrial plant . Silversmith a t work . Group of men engrave and sculpt silver around a small table . Cut to Polish peasant tilling the soil .
Cut to ornate building in city of Gdansk , Poland . Picturesque shots of city including fountains and old buildings . Coal mine in Upper Silesia . Coal goes past on conveyor belt . Man digs at coal seam . Archive of Germans who were expelled from Upper Silesia after war . Lots of crying children . Old woman hungrily eats soup . Bags of possessions . Old people and children carrying large rucksacks . Convoy of people and carts . Colour shot of miners leaving coalmine . Archive shot of Gromylka attending meeting of Polish congress or government . Lots of applause for his speech . Archive of religious procession - catholic . Celebrating the release from prison of seven cardinals . Cardinals sit together around a table . Cardinal crossing himself in outdoor ceremony .
Colour shots of average Polish street . Polish dock workers loading export cargo . Two women window shopping . Woman and child food shopping . Devastated buildings and rubble . Pan around to see extent of war damage . Two men play chess . Woman sits behind them , knitting . Small girl asleep on sofa . All of them live in this one room . Young male student eats an apple in a library . Young people smoke in a café . Young woman reads a novel by Norman Miller . Polish newspaper - communist propaganda . General street scenes . End credits .

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