Medicine | 1980 | Sound | Colour
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Blood loss and shock and the care of bleeding in First Aid 1980's
Opening shot of narrator driving a car in a suburban street "Blood is a vehicle: it carries oxygen round the body" A crashed car - blood is seen dripping from a door. Next, diagram shows a body and a 10 pint bottle - the human body holds 10 pints loss of one pint is not noticed. If 3 pints are lost, there is not enough to carry oxygen around a normal the body. This crisis is "SHOCK".
Old man walking in Suburban street is " mugged " or robbed in a street crime, no outward sign of bleeding but internal bleeding is just a serious. Next, a diagram of the blood-circulation - heart, lungs, kidneys with arteries and veins. Circulation is briefly explained.
Pulses are demonstrated in the neck and at the wrist. Feeling pulse gives useful information about the man's state - is blood still flowing? Rate, strength and rhythm of pulse must be assessed. Waching of electrocardiogram is shown. Normal rate is 68 - 80 per minute. (Less in old, more in young)) Varies with exercise, emotion and injury. In blood loss, pulse is rapid and weak.
Another diagram shows circulation of blood to brain. Blood loss functions of brain. Some organs can manage with less blood for a time, but not the brain. "SHOCK" in the body's response to less of blood. Pain and anxiety can make then worse. Blood loss can be fatal.
Internal bleeding can be seen at once. Doctor is seen examing man who has been mugged. Victim says he has been kicked - bruising under left rips. Internal bleeding is suspected. Victims legs are raised to direct blood to the brain.
Main points to watch are "ABC" - Airways, Breathing and Circulation.
Next in "D" - Diagnosis. Patient circulation is seen being checked - pulse is fast and weak, skin is cold and pale. May sweat. Diagram shows man lying with head down - legs raised. Loosen tight clothing! Don't feed or drink - he may need anaesthetic
If there is outward bleeding, things should be dealt with. (Diagram of circulation is shown again). Blood from arteries is bright red and comes out in spurts, being pumped out by the heart. Bleeding from capillaries (very fine vessels) is less bright and oozes. Blood from vein is darker and comes out steadily. Blood may come from both vein and artery is some wound (Bleeding from an arm shown)
Patient with cut on arm is shown. Arm is raised above level of heart - reduces pressure. Pressing directly on wound help to reduce bleeding. Use a pack on fingers. Covering with a dressing also encourages blood to clot. Bandage shown being applied but not to tight or circulation would be hindered. If no bandages are available - use clothes. A neck-tie or rope may serve.
If original dressing has stopped flow, a larger one has to be a applied. (Doctors shows this) If indirect pressure is used. Doctor is seen pressing on "brachial artery" above elbow. He says "Indirect pressure can only be used on men"! But is seen to demonstrate on woman.
Brachial artery is pressed against bone of arm.
A wound is shown in which a foreign body is in place. Pressure is applied on either side of this.
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