Science | 1970 | Sound | Colour
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A film about mitosis and gene cells, DNA
Trees are budding, some flowers have bloomed. A tree in full bloom. A plant is growing, a leaf bud growing and developing. A very faint outline of a chicken embryo (visible in the middle of the orange yolk), this embryo is only one day old. A two day old chicken embryo. Live growth of a chicken embryo. A chicken is born (after 21 days). The beginning of a human embryo. A child plays in a sand pit. Close up on the child's shoulder. Animal cells. A single egg cell that will develop into a rabbit. Shortly after fertilization the rabbit single cell divides into two. These two cells divide to make four cells. Increasing cell divisions. Animated diagrammatic representation of a rabbit embryo growing. A drawing of a rabbit is superimposed on the live embryo cell division. Drawing of a rabbit. Diagrammatic representation of an animal cell showing the cytoplasm, the nucleus. Close up on the nucleus drawing showing the chromosomes. Close up on the chromosome drawing to reveal a representation of the genes. Drawing of a multicoloured chromosome, at either side of it is a drawing of a chicken and a drawing of a bean plant, then a drawing of blue eyes and of brown eyes, then a boy with brown eyes and a girl with blue eyes. Drawing of the multicoloured chromosome. Drawing of the cell with chromosomes represented in four different colours. Animated diagrammatic representation illustrating cell division in case the chromosomes were just halved in number (i.e. this deprives the daughter cells of all the genetic information). Drawing of the cell. Animation describing the duplication of identical chromosomes, followed by cell division. Close up of a plant (a blood Lilly). A man is inspecting the blood lily, he is Andrezes Bajer. He collects blood lily seed pods onto a petri dish. View of a laboratory bench with forceps, scalpel and petri dish. Bajer sits at the bench with the blood lily seed pods. Close up of the blood lily seed pod being sliced open and the contents squeezed onto a microscopic slide. View of a phase microscope with Bajer placing a specimen to view, this microscope can be used to photograph the mitotic phases of the blood lily. Bajer looks through the eye piece of the microscope . Live divisions of the blood lily seeds, first see the resting stage. More cells are visible in various stages of division. Chromosomes become visible. Chromosomes start to align on the metaphasic plane. Double chromosomes separate, move to opposite poles of the cell. The cell wall forms creating two daughter cells. Close up of an eye looking through the eye piece of a microscope. Close up of the microscope's objectives. Close up of a face looking through the eyepiece of the microscope. A blood lily cell. Several blood lily cells in various stages of growth. Diagrammatic representation of the resting stage, chromosomes are represented as long thin spaghetti like threads, they are termed chromatin. This stage is called prophase, the doubling of chromatin. Diagram showing the end of prophase (double chromosomes joined at the centromer). Diagram showing spindle formation.
Live prophase occurring in the blood lily cells, arrows point to spindle fibres and to the nucleoli, centromers are also visible. Diagram of a cell in late prophase. Animation showing metaphase, anaphase. Live metaphase stage of blood lily cells. Live anaphase of blood lily cells. Animation describing telophase. Live blood lily cells going through telophase, the cell plate is clearly visible, at the end of telephase the chromosomes are no longer visible, they are termed chromatin. Another live cell division which clearly shows the chromosomes being enveloped by the nuclear membrane at the end of telophase. Close up of the microscope's objectives. Close up of the microscope being adjusted. Close up of a face looking through the eyepiece. A newt heart cell grown in tissue culture. Cell division occurring in the newt heart cell (prophase to telephase, notice that there is no cell plate, the two daughter cells simply pull apart from one another). Irruptions occur in the cell membrane after cell division. Focus on the new cell and then on the mother cell. Close up of a small wound on a fore head, it shows the blood clotting to form a scab, gradually the damaged tissue is healed. A tissue sample showing blood capillaries (blood is visible flowing through the capillaries). Close up of red blood capillaries. Hands are being washed in a sink. Close up of a hand being dried with a paper towel. Diagrammatic representation of the skin structure, focus on the epithelium layer being renewed. Animation showing cells multiplying in the skin giving rise to cancer. Close up of a slide containing cells being subjected to radiation, the process is carried out using automata. A blood lily cell (live) that has being treated with radiation, we can clearly see broken chromosomes. Another live cell that was treated with radiation. Another cell that was irradiated, some of its chromosomes are now bigger than the original ones, while others are shorter. View of a biology laboratory with one scientist working at a bench. Close up of the scientist working at the bench, she is looking under the microscope. A live cell that was treated with colchicine, mitosis was arrested at metaphase, i.e. colchicine "freezes" chromosomes at a crucial point of division. View of the lab with both scientists. Normal mitosis. A flower is budding (blood lily). A live chicken embryo. Live mitotic cell divisions. A field with trees, one is in full bloom.
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