Industry + Work | 1950 | Sound | B/W
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Crude oil production in the 1950's.
An animation describes what crude oil is made of: hydrogen and carbon, it also illustrates that carbon is found in soot and that hydrogen is a gas (often used to fill balloons), a very simple explanation of atoms and of chemical bonds between carbon and hydrogen which form hydrocarbon chains. Crude oil contains different kinds of hydrocarbons. A whistling kettle is heating water, boiling water will not get hotter once it has reached its boiling point. The kettle lid is lifted by steam forming inside the kettle. View of the kettle on the hob with steam coming out the sprout. Crude oil. An animation describes the boiling point of several hydrocarbons found in crude oil. A light and quick flowing oil on an aluminium surface, this oil boils at 214 degree C. A dark and sluggish flowing oil on an aluminium surface, this oil boils at 450 degree C. A vial containing crystals, a beaker containing a clear fluid and a second beaker containing a dark fluid, the three materials are mixed together in a distillation balloon flask. A distillation experiment is performed to separated the three components from the mixture, the clear liquid boils first and thus is distilled first, the dark fluid is distilled second and the crystals remain at the bottom of the balloon flask. Distillation is also used to separate the hydrocarbons in crude oil.
An animation illustrates that the range of hydrocarbons present in crude oil is similar to cards in a pack of playing cards which have all been shuffled, it is easier to separate groups of cards than in is to separate individual cards, these groups are termed fractions, distillation of crude oil fractions in stills (tanks). An industrial petroleum refinery (distil each hydrocarbon ). View of the fractionating tower ( part of the refinery where hydrocarbon separation occurs). An animation explains how the fractionating tower separates each hydrocarbon: crude oil is heated until most of it is a vapour mixed with heavy residue, this mixture passes to the tower, the heavy residue falls to the bottom where it is drawn off, the vapours pass up the tower, as they rise, they cool and each fraction is condensed in turn, trays catch the various fractions as they turn into liquid, if the trays overflow the liquid runs down and is redistilled, the top of the tower is cooled so that only the tiniest fraction remains as vapour, any hydrocarbon in the tray that ought not to be there is boiled off by vapours passing through and hydrocarbons that ought to be on the tray are condensed by liquid, the fractions are drawn off and purified in separate condensers. Crude oil. A diagram describes industrial distillation. View of the refinery. Diagram of a refinery also showing what fractions are produced, for example: gasoline (the lightest fraction), kerosene oil, diesel oil, lubricating oil and bitumen, in the old days kerosene was the most important product, gasoline was just a by-product, it was dangerous and had to be burned off (an image of gasoline burning).
A drawing of a turn of the century car, more cars meant an increasing demand for gasoline and therefore for more crude oil to be brought up from the soil, this resulted in more amounts of the heavier fractions and thus an economical problem. A thick viscous liquid (an heavy fraction) is poured into a beaker, a flame tries to ignite it but the dark liquid wont ignite. An animation describes the molecules that make this thick dark oil, it is a long chain hydrocarbon: C16H34, the film terminates abruptly.
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