Medicine | 1950 | Sound | Colour
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Use of animals (cat, rabbit, frog,) in scientific research or vivisection to examine the effect of adrenaline and noradrenaline in 1950's
A scientific journal is opened on a 1904 article "The action of adrenaline" by T.R. Elliot, M.A., Physiological Laboratory, Cambridge. An animated diagram shows the lower abdominal sympathetic nerve being stimulated which results in a rise in blood pressure, the same occurs with the hepatic nerve. Another animation explains that the increase in blood pressure is due to vessel constriction which causes an increase in peripheral resistance, when "Ergotoxine" is injected it blocks constriction. Explanation of where adrenaline and noradrenaline are present. Most nerves in body resemble hepatic nerve where the mediator is nor adrenaline. A cat is exposed to an experiment about the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline on blood pressure. Close up of a cat with a cannula inserted into the carotid artery, the cannula is connected to a mercury barometer and the blood pressure is traced on a smoke drum. Ten micrograms of adrenaline are injected into the cat's femoral vein, the results are recorded on the smoke drum, ( three minutes after the injection, blood pressure returns to normal). Ten micrograms of noradrenaline are injected, this produces a bigger rise in blood pressure, ergotoxine is also injected after adrenaline and after noradrenalin, the results are displayed on the smoke drum and show that ergotoxine abolishes the rise in blood pressure and cause no fall in pressure. Close up of the ergotoxine trace. Close up of the four results: before and after ergotoxine was added, these results are superimposed on a previous diagram which illustrated lower abdominal stimulation and hepatic stimulation. The drugs are also studied on skin, mucous membranes and muscles and on the direct action on the heart. Test on skin follows: An animal(rabbit) ear is used to test the effects of adrenaline and noradrenalin and Ergotoxine on skin vessels: A cannula is inserted in the central artery, the ear rests on top of a glass funnel. Close up of the recording trace. Adrenaline is injected into the cannula. The result is recorded onto the smoke drum, the result indicates vasoconstriction in the skin vessels a similar result is shown for noradrenalin. A diagram summarises the effect on skin vessels. An experiment is done on a frogs tongue which shows the of adrenaline, noradrenalin on mucous membranes: The frogs tongue is pinned down and a microscope placed over it, a view of the microscope shows blood vessels and the passage of blood through them. The image is split into two in order to record normal conditions and changes that occur. A drop of adrenaline is applied to the frogs tongue and the result is viewed under the microscope, the blood vessels clearly constrict. A diagram explains that in mucous membranes, vasoconstriction is due to the action of adrenaline and noradrenalin. A diagram summarises the next experiment which shows the effects of adrenaline and noradrenalin on muscles. Close up of a cat's hind leg with the skin removed, the femoral vein was removed and replaced with tubing which collects fluid into a drop recorder. A diagram explains how blood pressure is measured (through the insertion of a cannula in the carotid artery). Close up of traces on a smoke drum, the results of the effect of adrenaline and noradrenaline on muscles. A diagram summarises the effects of adrenaline and noradrenalin on blood vessels of the skin, mucous membranes and muscles. An isolated beating cat's heart is used to show the effects of adrenaline and noradrenalin on the heart. A diagram explains how the experiment will be performed. Close up of the cat's isolated heart infused with fluid, the fluid is then led away to an outflow recorder. Close up of the trace produced by the outflow recorder. The beating isolated heart with threads attached to the tip of the ventricle. A general view of the beating heart, adrenaline and nor adrenaline are added to the beating heart. The results are displayed on the trace. Close up of the heart to show the marked effect noradrenalin has. Close up of the isolated heart beating. A faster smoke drum is used to see the subtle difference these drugs have on the heart. The isolated heart beating. More trace results. Diagrams explain the effect of Ergotoxine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, on blood pressure and on the peripheral blood pressure. A noradrelanine trace.
4ft Similar action of adrenaline & and sympathetic nerves
73ft Action of adrenaline & noradrenaline on blood vessels
98ft Recording on a smoked drum
199ft Effects of both drugs on blood vessels in various tissues
269ft Mucous membranes
630ft Summation of effects on the whole body
777ft Clinical advantages of noradrenaline for failing circulation
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